Next HARC TEK NET will be…..

September 20, 2020 at 8pm  


The third Sunday of the month brings us one of our favorite topics.

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WELCOME all to the Henderson Amateur Radio Club’s  Sunday Night  TEK NET

 Subjects that have already been discussed will be displayed in GREEN text to show it has been archived.

The HARC Tek Net will be on all of the normally linked HARC repeaters and affiliates.

The photos, drawings and diagrams found here will assist with visually understanding the subject for that net discussion and can be downloaded by right click on any image and save it to your computer.

     Future subjects for discussion, which one will you do?

  • What do you think of the audio on most repeater

  • What does it take to have a successful repeater

  • Building your own antennas

  • Ham swap meets, do you go?

  • What do you think of the audio on most repeater

  • What does it take to have a successful repeater

  • Building your own antennas

  • Have you ever built or owned a repeater

  • Power supplies- operation and failures –  switching types

  • Homebrew projects “What project are you working on?”

  • Stealth or disquise antennas in an HOA

  • What does a swr meter really tell you


  •  Aug 11, 2019 – Power supplies- analog type- WB6AMT

    Aug 18, 2019 – How does Allstar work-NO7BS, WB6MIE, WB6AMT

  • Aug 25, 2019 – How to use a multimeter- WB6AMT

  • Sept 1, 2019 – General questions/ answer session & Swap meet listings

  • Sept 8, 2019 – Building a UHF disguise base antenna-WB6AMT

  • September 15, 2019 – Ask The Pros, KG7QWH, NO7BS, WB6MIE, NO7E, WB6AMT

  • Sept 22, 2019 – What does the Touch-tone buttons on your HT do?- WB6AMT

  • Sept 29, 2019 – Mounting mobile antennas for better performance- Motorola Data

  • Oct 6, 2019 – Remote HF Antenna switch project- WB6AMT

  • October 13, 2019 Remote Antenna Project Conclusion- WB6AMT

  • October 20,2020 – Ask The Pros, KG7QWH, NO7BS, WB6MIE, NO7E, WB6AMT

  • October 27, 2019 – Make an Allstar node in a old radio chassis- WB6AMT

  • Nov 3, 2019 – Why should I turn my radio on other than for nets- WB6MIE

  • Nov 10, 2019 – Ask The Pros, KG7QWH, NO7BS, WB6MIE, NO7E, WB6AMT

  • November 17, 2019 – D-Star In’s & Out’s – NO7E

  • November 24, 2019 – Follow-up with D-Star from last week- NO7E

  • December 1, 2019 – Grounding concerns- WB6MIE & NO7BS

  • December 8, 2019 – Winter Field Day 

  • December 15, 2019 – 18650 Lithium ion battery- WB6AMT

  • December 29, 2019 – LED’s & How to use them- WB6AMT

  • Jan 5, 2020 – Capacitor, ESR testing and recapping equipment- NO7BS

  • January 12, 2020 – Radio Modulation, How to talk to your Mic-WB6AMT

  • January 19, 2020 – 5G Setvice…what is it really- WB6AMT/ NO7BS

  • February 2, 2020 – Analog vs Digital Radio Performance- W0SKY

  • February 9, 2020 – How my signal gets to the repeater – WB6MIE

  • February 16,2020 – Ask the Pros “Your first Ham Radio Field Day” 

  • February 23, 2020 – Grounding from Motorola Manual R56- WB6AMT

  • March 1, 2020 – Radio Mobile Online Antenna plotting software- WB6MIE/ WB6AMT

  • March 8, 2020 – DC Power Distribution in vehicles- WB6AMT

  • March 15, 2020 –  Ask The Pros/ LV ARES RODEO- N7ZEV

  • March 22, 2020 – Introduction yo Software Defined Radios- N8BSD

  • March 29, 2020 – How COVID-19 has impacted ham radio- 

  • April 5, 2020 – The FCC’s  online testing

  • April 12, 2020 – Build a radio with NiceRF SA-818 HT module- WB6AMT

  • April 19, 2020 – Ask the Pros night

  • April 26, 2020 – Open forum…anything goes tonight- WB6AMT

  • May 3, 2020 – IT-101 Basic Home IT networking essentials – KG7QWH

  • May 10, 2020 – Building the Searcher Directional Antenna –  WB6AMT

  • May 17, 2020 – ASK THE PROS Night 

  • May 24, 2020 – “Using commercial radios on ham bands” – WB6AMT 

  • May 31, 2020 – “What do you want from a Radio Club?” – WB6AMT

  • June 7, 2020 – “Surface Mount Devices soldering technologies – N8BSD

  • June 14, 2020 – Repeater 100, Overview of Repeater Basics – WB6MIE

  • June 21, 2020 – “ASK THE PROS” Night

  • June 28, 2020 – Field Day at the H5 location.

  • July 5, 2020 – “Adding an analog “S” meter to a radio”

  • July 12, 2020 –  “Connector Basics”  Part 1 – WB6AMT

  • July 19, 2020 – “ASK THE PROS” Night

  • July 26, 2020 – “Connector Basics Part 2 – WB6AMT

  • July 29, 2020 – Apex Presentation for the TAG meeting.

  • August 2, 2020 –  RF Connectors 100 – WB6MIE

  • August 9, 2020 – What is the cloud – WB6AMT

  • September 13, 2020 – Building and using a 70cm Directional antenna – WB6AMT

September 20, 2020 at 8pm  


The third Sunday of the month brings us one of our favorite topics.

Tonight is the time to bring your comments or questions that you have out in the open so our club members can chime in and help you get solutions to your problems, questions, ideas…anything ham radio.

Everyone participating is what makes ASK THE PROS night as successful as it is.

Vhf/Uhf T-hunt Transmitter project.

Schematic_Transmitter Controller Dual outputs_2020-09-18_12-36-04


September 13, 2020 at 8pm  

“Building and using a 70cm directional antenna”

There was discussion at last month’s T hunt/finish point that there was an interest in direction finding a 70cm frequency for the hidden transmitter in the future.

I have started building a Version “2” T-hunt transmitter that will have a 146.565 vhf transmitter and a 1 watt uhf frequency also transmitting at the same time. Both RF outputs will be fed into an antenna combiner so it can be fed to a single dual band antenna like a GP-3.

The initial test frequency will be on the H5 frequency of 449.850 so that most folks that have all the HARC  “H” channels programmed into their radios can T-hunt on H5 frequency without bothering anyone in Pahrump and we will see how that works out

Seems like a great time to start talking about a small uhf directional antenna for your vehicle.

Being a bit lazy, I will start out with an antenna I already have, a 5 element quad antenna that was originally built 6 years ago. It has a fair amount of gain if my memory serves me correctly of about 8-9db forward gain.

We will be building a new quad today for the presentation photos.

#1 Original UHF Homebrew Quad Antenna



#2 Materials list


(2)  48″ Fiberglass driveway markers, 5/16″ dia.   $2.28 ea.

(1)  24″ x 1-1/2″ x 3/4″ Poplar   $2.44

#3 18Ga Copper picture hanging wire


#4 Cutting materials


You will need four rods cut to 9-1/2″ long and six rods cut to 8-1/2″ long.

Sand a flat spot on each end being careful to keep the rod straight so the ends were flat and inline with the other end.




#4B Drilling the ends


On all rods drill a 1/16″ hole near the end of each rod (1/8″ from end)

On one 9-1/2″ rod drill a second hole, this will be the Driven element.

#5 Element spacing on boom


#5A Element centering prior to gluing


This example is 3-15/16 from the end of the ruler, against the wide side of the boom on both sides. The rod is centered when the rod is sticking out the same distance on each side. This applies for the narrow width side also. Be sure to mark the rod against the boom so you will know where to put the rod when gluing.

When you are ready to apply glue, insert the rod to the mark against the boom, pull the rod out about 1/2″ and apply glue to the rod, spin the rod as you insert it back to your mark and be sure that the drilled holes on the ends are facing up. The holes need to be in the correct position so you can thread the wire through each end of the rods later.



#6 Prepping the wire


#6A Solder the loop


When threading the copper wire thru each rod, use plenty of pull to get and keep the wire tight and straight until you have it back to the small loop and pull tight….bend….wrap it, trim and solder like Photo 6B.

#6B Creating/ attaching each loop


#6C Creating the feedpoint


As mentioned earlier, the feed point has two holes for each end of the Driven Element’s loop. You will connect the coax shield to one end of the loop and the center conductor to the other end of the loop like 6D.

#6D Coax at feed point


The feedpoint of the quad antenna is actually in the horizontal plane for the antenna to be VERTICAL polarized.

A favorite trick of quad users is to make two feedpoints with two coax cables going to a Two-port antenna switch, this allows the operator to select between Horizontal or Vertical polarization of the receive signal.

This antenna is small enough to use easily at the finish point to SNIFF out the secondary baby transmitter.



September 6, 2020 2020 at 8pm  

“Charging your cell and tablet faster”

This seems like a reasonable question to ask.

After getting a new phone this week requiring a different changer than my old Android used, a little research seemed to be in order. I was made aware that not being just a different charger, but the science behind this new  charging method and the capabilities were nothing less than surprising.

Charging a phone is simultaneously incredibly simple and can be maddeningly complex. Depending on what you are using, how your using it and what you expect or what your trying to achieve.

Basically any USB port in the world can charge any phone, but some will recharge half your battery in the blink of an eye, while others can barely be able to keep up with your phone’s natural battery drain.

If you’re charging your phone on your nightstand overnight, the charger that came in the box with your device will easily get the job done over the course of seven hours.

But if you’re trying to get some extra juice into your device between meetings at work, during a few minutes at the gate before your flight boards, every percentage point you can add to your phone’s battery meter counts.

Luckily, the charging world is finally starting to use a single standard: USB-C Power Delivery, which can communicate with your device to deliver the fastest charging speeds it can handle.



Typical connectors on charging cables


The charger you use with your phone overnight doesn’t need to be fast. Fast charging really shines in situations where you only have a few minutes to recharge, but will need your phone to last the rest of the day. If you spend a lot of time traveling, or work in a job that takes you away from your desk, a few minutes of fast charging can be all it takes to keep your device alive for the rest of the day.

It’s also worth noting that most phone manufacturers throttle charging speeds on nearly-full batteries, both for safety and for the lifespan of the battery. For example, once your iPhone reaches 80%, its charging speeds will automatically drop no matter what it’s plugged into. So if you’re hoping to fast-charge your device during your morning commute when your battery is still over 90%, its not going to happen.


Most iPhones ship with a tiny, 5 watt charging brick, but for nearly a decade now, Apple’s phones have supported charging speeds of up to 12 watts, which is why you’ve probably noticed that your phone charges faster when plugged into an iPad charger.

But all of the latest and greatest iPhones (starting with the iPhone 8 and iPhone X, from 2017) support even faster charging, up to 18 watts, with a compatible USB-C Power Delivery charger and a USB-C to Lightning cable.

It was found that 18 watt and greater chargers could charge an iPhone battery from 0% to over 50% in just 30 minutes. The included 5W charger, by comparison, barely cleared 25% in the same time period.

Pretty much any USB-C Power Delivery charger will max out your iPhone charging speed, including the latest lineup of small, gallium nitride-powered chargers.



Conventional and Gallium nitride-powered changer

The 18W Anker PowerPort III Nano is esentially the same size as the charging brick that Apple includes with most iPhones, and is one of the smallest and most travel-friendly options available.

If you only want to bring one charger with you while traveling, RAVPower’s 30W charger includes an 18W USB-C port, plus a 12W USB port that you can use to charge a second device simultaneously.



#4 USB-C Power Delivery pcb




Android phones, which are made by a variety of different manufacturers, are understandably a bit more complicated and used the Micro-USB connector prior to the USB Type C Power Delivery change.



Micro USB on most Android prior to USB Type C Power Delivery

For many years now, most high-end Android phones have supported Qualcomm Quick Charge technology (though some, confusingly, rebrand the technology with their own names). Quick Charge begat the faster Quick Charge 2.0, which begat the even faster Quick Charge 3.0, which has given way to Quick Charge 4.0, which for all intents and purposes is the same thing as USB-C Power Delivery.

Luckily, most modern Android phones support some variety of USB-C Power Delivery just like the iPhone (though, again, many will have a different name for it), but the exact implementation can vary from phone to phone.

For example, Samsung’s Galaxy Note 10 and Note 10+ use non-standard 25W charging profiles that are incompatible with most third party chargers. But with very few exceptions, the same chargers we mentioned earlier for iPhones will also charge your Android device quickly (assuming you have a USB-C to USB-C cable).

There is also a new technology developed called PowerIQ 3.0 technology, which is able to communicate back and forth with almost every major device, and adapt its output to deliver the fastest possible charging speed, whether you’ve plugged in an iPhone, an Android phone, or even a laptop.

#7 Nekteck 45w Car Charger612budrohjL._AC_SL1200_

And if you want to maximize your charging time while you’re driving to and from work, this Nekteck car charger includes a 45W USB-C port that’ll charge everything from your phone to a laptop, plus an additional USB port for a second device.

Battery Packs

If you want to fast-charge your iPhone on the go without a power outlet, many USB battery packs released over the past few years support USB-C Power Delivery charging as well.

The RAVPower 26,800mAh pack features a 30W USB-C port, two other USB ports, and is one of the highest capacity batteries that you can legally take on a plane. Great for long flights or camping trips.

NOTE ** When shopping around for a cheaper way to go for your particular needs make sure that it’s MFi-certified, which means it has Apple’s seal of approval, and is guaranteed to be compatible with your iPhone.

For more information on Gallium Nitride chargers and why and how they are going to revolutionize the charger market, click here for  the full download:  Gallium Nitride chargers



August 23, 2020 2020 at 8pm  

“Ham Radio…1000 hobbies in 1”

That statement was made by a TV news person describing an interview at a Ham Radio Field day event up at Mt. Charleston in Las Vegas, after talking to over 25 hams.

The one thing about ham radio is that you can dive as deeply as you want into the field of electronics, communications, antennas, digital communications, public service, contest -as competitive operating, solar applications, geophysics sciences, world-wide DX-ing  as it’s called, building robotics using ham radio to communicate with, Test Equipment – Building it and using, Radio Interference, Grounding and many more including just using ham radios as your personal communications tool.

Let’s try to break it down into some categories and then dive into the categories even farther

Software Defined Radio


Above is Nate’s N8BSD SDR project


<1MHz to 3000MHz – USB PC SDR dongle cost about $25 

Terrestrial Microwave
– 1 GHz & Up

Microwave Meshhttps://www.arednmesh.org

Weak signal

– HF, VHF, Microwave
– Tropospheric ducting

     – Meteor Scatter

     – Plane Scatter

– Microwave GEO (QO-100, Es’hail 2)
– ISS (Voice & Packet)

– ATV/DATV (amateur TV)


– SSTV ( see below)
– NTSC Format


Digital Data modes
– CW



– FT4 / FT8


WSPR – Weak Signal Propagation Radio

– APRS / Packet Radio

-WINLINK    https://www.winlink.org/


Send and receive E-mail over HF ham radio

Digital voice modes


– Allstar Voip


Allstar node for Rasp Pi without a radio 

– P25

– EMCOMM / Skywarn


A portable GO BOX with radio, tuner, power supply and internal battery





Summit On The Air involves hams taking their radios to the tops of mountains and making contacts to gather points per contact.



Jamboree On The Air

Antenna building / radio building / tinkering


Homebrew T-hunt antenna attenuator made out of printed board material

What about the frequencies?

Starting at the lowest and going higher

VLF below 500 khz


Very Low Frequency antenna

 620 meter band

1750 meter band part 15

2200 meter band – This is the lowest frequency a ham can transmit on, 136 KHz.

HF 1.7 to 30 mhz

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From the modest, starting out…..to the

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Avid Heathkit builder

CW ( Morse code)



NO7BS SSB operating station (just out of the picture is his Henry 2K Linear Amp)

FM on 10 meters


Some CB radios can be modified to operate on 10 Meters

Digital modes, pactor, sitor, amtor, winlink, psk31, ft-8, more


Sample of FT-8 screen on your computer



Slow Scan Television from NO7BS today


DXing is the hobby of receiving and identifying distant radio or television signals, or making two-way radio contact with distant stations in amateur radio or other two-way radio communications. Many DXers also attempt to obtain written verifications of reception or contact, sometimes referred to asQSLs “




By operating on battery power and other qualifiers more points are earned


NR5M Radio club contest station

VHF 50 mhz to 225 mhz

6 meters magic band



Meteor scatter

Sporadic E layer skip


Auroral scatter

Chasing the MUF

MUF propagation prediction is a statistical science. The maximum usable frequency (MUF)is the highest frequency that, with a probability of 50% of the time, can be used for radio communication between two points at a specified distance (but not necessary in all directions) via refraction by the ionosphere.

2 meters 144-148 mhz




Home made T hunt antenna & mount


Digital modes, DMR, Fusion, DStar, P-25

Packet radio



UHF 300MHz to 3000Mhz



Digital modes, Allstar, DMR, Fusion, DStar, P-25

Weak Signal


Packet radio


Moon Bounce also called EME





Wideband FM

Narrowband FM


Weak signal

Propagation modes

Tropospheric scatter

Rain/snow scatter

Millimeter wave above 50 ghz

Here is a paper on getting on first 725GHz!

First connection in the 725 GHz amateur band DB6NT 7

This is a vintage Ham Radio film please watch it and see how some of us got going in ham radio with so much enthusiasm.


We have only scratched the surface….


August 9, 2020 2020 at 8pm  

“What is the “Cloud”…really?”

To some of you, no explanation is needed.

However this week I received the above question for the third time from three different hams over the past couple of months.

I am going to pretty much use most of my narrative on screen so that it will be available for later lookup. I have a feeling that this will be a Tek Net that will spark interest to others unaware of the HARC TekNet.

We have received positive comments on adding the entire Tek Net audio file of the evenings Tek Net at the end of the session after the net, for those folks that missed the net can listen to it in its entirety at a later time.

For those who don’t know much about me, I’m an old guy (70 years old) and got my ham license 47 years ago and still get referred to as youngster by some of our regular Tek Net members! lol

Having been pretty active in amateur radio for most of that time, I will be the first to admit that I have forgot many things technical or plain don’t know a lot about some technological things.

Modern technology too often uses unclear phrases to describe new technologies whose meanings can be tough to comprehend from their contexts. “Big data,” “internet of things,” and “5G” are a few that come to mind.

However, few are more confusing than “the cloud”, the invisible data storage system that seems to exist in the air/ atmosphere around us, despite being made of very real and physical components.

I’m going to try my best to explain just what “the cloud” is, so the next time one of your neighbors asks you what is it or so you can understand what is meant when you hear a tech person toss the term around.

What is the cloud?

The cloud is a metaphor for a global network of remote servers that operates as a single ecosystem, commonly associated with the Internet.

Shane Huston KG7QWH our HARC Tek Net IT Specialist defines the cloud as the following:

The Internet is drawn as a Cloud.  The cloud consists of thousands of Switches interlinked utilizing routing protocols to send your packet to the destination you intended.

What does the cloud do?


At its most basic, the cloud is the umbrella term for the global network of servers that store data. This data can be almost anything. This includes a text document saved to Google Drive, a file shared by colleagues over Dropbox, or a song that an artist makes available through SoundCloud.

The data that make up these files is hosted on large server farms, some of which may be owned by the companies themselves, others of which are rented like Microsoft Asur, Intel Multi Cloud, Digital Ocean, Amazon Lightsail, and many others.

The main appeal of utilizing the cloud instead of saving files on a physical drive or a local network is that once the files are on these systems, they can be accessed from anywhere by anyone. It is this kind of access that allows virtual teams to collaborate around the globe and allows today’s hyper-mobile workforce to engage with projects from remote settings.

How do you get to the cloud?

Even if you don’t realize it, you probably interact with the cloud on a regular basis. Most cloud-based services are designed to be accessible from a simple web browser on a desktop or mobile device.  Many functions we depend on rely on the cloud, such as email services like Yahoo Mail and Gmail.

However, the cloud can be utilized to perform more advanced functions than just this. Cloud servers are high end pieces of technology, and other devices can take advantage of their computing powers.

For example, a popular new piece of technology is Google’s Chromebook, which is a low-cost laptops running on comparatively cheap, low-powered hardware. They are entirely dependent on an internet connection to hook up to cloud-connected apps and services, meaning that you can get high-level functionality out of inexpensive equipment.


Inexpensive Google Chromebook laptop

Cloud storage helps preserve data

#3 Storage

Storing data on the cloud instead of on a hard drive (internal or external) not only makes it easy to reach from anywhere, it helps save local storage space and ensures that file’s safety.

Tools such as Google Photos can be set up to automatically upload photos to cloud storage, meaning that your phone never fills up, you can take as many photos as you want, and if your phone gets damaged, the photos won’t be lost.

Are there any risks with the cloud?

As with any new technology, there are some things that you should be aware of. Since cloud-based data requires an internet connection, if you find yourself without one, you cannot access your data unless you pull a hard copy off before you lose service. In addition, data that exists someplace beyond your phone or desktop is at a slight security risk, so be aware of this when saving sensitive information.

Finally, since the data leaves your physical control when it goes on the cloud, you can’t protect it from being destroyed by some sort of disaster at the server farm.

However, most servers include more back up and safety systems than the average user would have anyway, so this risk is negligible.

So, the next time your coworker sends you a photo to review or a friend shares a song with you, remember, it is all thanks to the collaborative power of the cloud.

I hope this answered some of your questions about what is the “cloud”.

The following audio clip was created by Dave AG7ZF so you can enjoy this evening’s narrative of the entire net.

There is some after net discussions too.

73 – Earl


August 2, 2020 2020 at 8pm  

“Connector Basics – RF connectors 100”

Tonight’s moderator is Tony Dinkel WB6MIE

Tony has over 50 years experience with all types of RF connectors on about as many pieces of electronic and communications equipment. He will be able to answer your questions regarding the different kinds of RF connectors and of course we welcome all comments to the net.

Tony’s presentation photos are located here https://www.facebook.com/104477997564655/photos/pcb.304596007552852/304590967553356/?type=1&theater

The following audio clip was created by Dave AG7ZF so you can enjoy this evening’s narrative of the entire net.

An additional download on the new band plan changes allowing Technicians HF frequencies is here:


73 & see you next week!


July 29, 2020 2020 at 8pm  

“APEX presentation for HARC’s TAG meeting”



#1AMountain Range



















#17Apex Interior - Feb 01 '19 01_22_02 PM












The end…73


July 26, 2020 2020 at 8pm  

“Connectors Basics (or 101)  – Audio types” (and a few others too!)

Continuing in our Connector Basics presentation tonight we’ll be touching on the audio types of connectors used in modern devices and and some of the Do’s and Don’ts when using them in your own projects.

Audio Connectors

Another familiar connector group are those used for audio-visual applications–RCA, phono and phone type. While these can’t truly be considered to be of the same family, as the various USB connectors are, we’ll consider both of them to be in the same vein while discussing them as audio connectors.

You’ll probably immediately recognize the 1/8″ version of this connector as a the plug on the end of a pair of headphones. These connectors actually come in three common sizes: 1/4″ (6.35mm), 1/8″ (3.5mm), and 2.5mm. ¼” size connectors find a lot of use in the professional audio and music

“Phone” Type Connectors

#1     1/8″ or 3.5mm phone plug

 Phone type

Headphone-type TRS phone plug, 1/8″. Typically, tip and ring will carry the stereo audio signals while sleeve will be connected to ground.

Often times the 1/4″ phone plug is called a professional or music industry instrument connector or an older stereo headphone plug.

Most electric guitars and amplifiers have 1/4″ tip-sleeve (TS) jacks on them. Some home entertainment center stereo amplifiers still have a 1/4″ headphone jack on the front panel.

The most common headphone plug on newer equipment is the “Mini” phone plug which is 1/8″ (3.5mm) tip-ring-sleeve (TRS) is very common as the connector for headphones or audio output signals on MP3 players, cell phones or computers input and output connections.

A least common plug is the “Micro” phone connector, I have seen these become more scarce on more audio equipment but they are still in use.

Some ham radio handhelds provide a 2.5mm tip-ring-ring-sleeve (TRRS) jack for connecting to headphones that also include a microphone for hands-free communications. There are lots of combinations being used on most of the Chinese and Japanese import HT radios for the headphone and external microphone connection.

The common availability of these connectors and cables makes them a good candidate for general purpose connectivity applications–for instance, long before USB, Texas Instruments graphing calculators used a 2.5mm TRS connector for a serial programming connector.

The lack of shielding makes them poor candidates for high-speed data, but low speed serial data can be passed through these connectors easily.

It should be remembered that tip-sleeve connector types are not designed for carrying power; during insertion, the tip and the sleeve can be momentarily shorted together, which will do damage to the power supply.

#2     1/8″ Mono phone plugphone plug

1/8″ phone plug. Note the lack of a ring contact on this connector.

#3     1/8″ Stereo Jackphone jack

                   1/8″ printed circuit board mount headphone jack 

With corresponding pin connections labeled. When no jack is inserted, an internal switch connects the tip and ring pins to the adjacent unmarked pins, allowing insertion detection.

#4   4-circuit Specialty plug4circuit plug

This 4 pole plug is what your cell phone has installed so that a headset with a microphone can be used. This plug has also been found to be in some home audio/video equipment for the Left and Right audio as well as the video signal.

#4A  Tip-Ring-Ring-Sleeve plug


RCA Connectors

Familiar as the home-stereo connector of choice for many decades, the RCA connector was introduced in the 1940s by RCA for home phonographs. It is slowly being supplanted by connections like HDMI in the audio-visual realm, but the ubiquity of the connectors and cables makes it a good candidate for home-built systems. It will be a long time before it is obsolete.

Female RCA connectors are usually found on devices, although it is possible to find extension or conversion cables with female jacks on them. Most RCA connectors are connected to one of four types of signals: component video (PAL or NTSC, depending on where the equipment was sold), composite video, stereo audio, or S/PDIF audio.

#5 RCA Phono


Female RCA connector, for video signals. Typically, NTSC or PAL video signal connectors will be yellow.

Left & Right audio phono jacks and plugs are typically colored Red & White.

Male RCA connectors are usually found on cables.

#6 RCA Phono Cables


Male RCA plugs. Red and white are usually for audio applications, with red denoting the “right” audio channel.

Some consumer RCA cables will have a third wire ( Yellow) that is a bit larger than the Red & White wire, this is a Video cable and is typically a 75 ohm wire.

Power Connectors

While many connectors carry power in addition to data, some connectors are used specifically to provide power connections to consumer devices. These vary widely by application and size, but we will only focus on some of the most common ones here.

Barrel Connectors

Barrel connectors are typically found on low-cost consumer electronics which can be plugged into wall power via bulky AC wall adaptors.

Wall adaptors are widely available, in a variety of power ratings and voltages, making barrel connectors a common means for connecting power to small projects.

The female barrel connector, or “jack”, can be purchased in several varieties: PCB mounted (surface mount or through hole), cable mount, or panel mount. Some of these connectors will have an additional contact that allows the application to detect whether a power supply is plugged into the barrel jack or not, thus allowing the device to bypass batteries and save battery life when running on external power.

#7 DC & AC Barrel connector

barrel plug

Unattached male barrel plug, for attachment to any power supply. Note that the sleeve connection is designed to be crimped onto the wire for extra strain relief.

The male barrel connector, or “plug”, is usually only found in a wire termination.

Barrel connectors provide only two connections, frequently referred to as “pin” or “tip” and “sleeve”.

When ordering, there are three differentiating characteristics of a barrel connection- inner diameter (the diameter of the pin inside the jack), outer diameter (the diameter of the sleeve on the outside of the plug), and polarity (whether the sleeve voltage is higher or lower than the tip voltage).

Sleeve diameter is most commonly either 5.5mm or 3.5mm.

Pin diameter is contingent upon sleeve diameter; a 5.5mm sleeve will have either a 2.5mm or 2.1mm pin. Unfortunately, this means that a plug designed for a 2.5mm pin will fit in a 2.1mm jack, but that the connection will be, at best, intermittent. 3.5mm sleeve plugs usually mate to a jack with a 1.3mm pin.

#8 DC & AC Barrel Jack

barrel jack


There are varying opinions on the gender of the jack and plug for these low power coax connectors.

Depending on where your get these connectors, the jack can be referred to “male” barrel connector due to the pin in the center and vice versa for the plug. Make sure to check out the product image and specs to find what you are looking for! In the above illustration the Insertion Detect pin is a connection that makes contact to the shield ( normally ground) when there is no plug inserted and opens that connection when a plug is inserted.

This is used in battery applications to disconnect the internal battery when external power is applied to the device.


Polarity is the final aspect to consider; most often, the sleeve will be considered 0V and the tip will be a positive voltage relative to the sleeve.

Many devices will have a small diagram indicating the polarity expected by the device; care should be taken to adhere to this, as an improper power supply may damage the device.

#9 Polarity diagram


Common polarity diagrams for AC adaptors with barrel plugs. Positive polarity (tip positive, sleeve 0V) is most common.

The polarity diagram above can often be found at the connector jack of your equipment or on the serial number sticker such as on the bottom of a laptop computer.

This tells you the polarity of the instrument and is handy when you are making your own power cable. You will normally see this diagram on the wall transformer also telling you what is on the end of the plug.

Plugs of both sleeve sizes are usually 9.5mm long, but longer and shorter ones do exist.

Some products use a negative 5.5mm sleeve and a positive 2.1mm pin; we recommend sticking to that standard where possible, as it seems to be the most common flavor found in the wild.


#10 MOLEX Connectors


Male Molex connector. The gender of the pins inside the connector is what signifies the gender of the connector as a whole.

Most computer hard drives, optical drives, and other internal peripherals get power through what is typically called a “Molex” connector. To be more accurate, it’s a Molex series 8981 connector–Molex is actually the name of the company which initially designed this connector back in the 1950s–but common usage has denuded that fact somewhat.

Molex connectors are designed to carry a lot of current: up to 11A per pin. For projects where a lot of power may be needed–a CNC machine, for instance, or a 3D printer- a very common method for powering the project is to use a desktop PC power supply and connecting the various system circuits through Molex connectors.

The Molex connector is one where the male/female terminology is a bit odd. The female connector is usually found on the end of a cable, and it slips inside of a plastic shell which surrounds the male pins on the male connector. Usually, the connectors are press-fit only, and very, very tight–they are intended to be connected and disconnected only a few times and, as such, are a bad choice for systems where connections will frequently be changed.

#11 MOLEX Cable connectors


MOLEX plugs and jacks are outfitted with some sort of indexing or locating capability, that allows the plug to be inserted one way only, sort of a polarity measure. (notice the corners missing on this hard-drive power cable connector)

Molex connectors can come in a variety of number of connections to meet your applications.

#12    Multiple pin Molex connectors

12pin molex

IEC Connector

IEC connector usually refers to the power supply inlet which is commonly seen on desktop PC power supplies, electronic test equipment and other devices reguiring a three conductor (grounded) power cord.

Strictly speaking, that’s an IEC 60320-1 C13 (female) and C14 (male) connector.

#13 IEC 


C14 male IEC power inlet, on a DC project power supply. Note that, as with the Molex connector, the gender of the connector is defined by the pins within the hood.

#14 IEC Cable


C13 female IEC power connector, on a fairly standard AC power supply cable. Cables with this end can be found all around the world, usually with the dominant local AC connector at the other end.

IEC connectors are used almost exclusively for AC power input. The nice thing about using one on a project is that IEC-to-wall cables are extremely common and available everywhere.

Well folks this went longer than I had anticipated, but this is all stuff that can come in handy when information is needed in the future and you will know where to go to find it!

Did you want to review a piece of information mentioned in the narrative, you can find it in the following audio file of tonights Tek Net. 

The following audio clip was created by Dave AG7ZF so you can enjoy this evening’s narrative of the entire net.

                     73 until next week!


July 19, 2020 2020 at 8pm  


This is our open forum type net, and always comes up with some interesting discussions.

Remember anything Ham Radio is fair game.

Did you want to review a piece of information mentioned in the narrative, you can find it in the following audio file of tonights Tek Net. 

The following audio clip was created by Dave AG7ZF, enjoy this evening’s narrative of the entire net.


July 12, 2020 2020 at 8pm  

“Connector Basics”

This evening’s topic was suggested by one of our regular Tek Net participants.

This will be a refresher for some and new material for others, however by having all this data about connectors and the wiring to such in one location will provide a really easy access point for future connector references.


Connectors are used to join subsections of circuits together. Usually, a connector is used where it may be desirable to disconnect the subsections at some future time: power inputs, peripheral connections, or boards which may need to be replaced.

I’m going to touch on the following and expect that many members tonight have experience with connectors. so join in.

  • Basic connector terminology

  • Categorize connectors into distinguishable categories

  • Talk about the differences between connectors within those categories.

  • Show how to identify polarized connectors

  • Talk about which connectors are best suited for certain applications

Connector Terminology

Gender – The gender of a connector refers to whether it plugs in or is plugged into and is typically male or female, respectively (kids, ask your parents for a more thorough explanation). Unfortunately, there are cases where a connector may be referred to as “male” when it would appear to be female; in the examples section, we’ll point a few of those out as we discuss individual component types and explain why that’s the case.



Male (left) and female 2.0mm PH series JST connectors. In this case, gender is determined by the individual conductor.


Polarity – Most connectors can only be connected in one orientation. This trait is called polarity, and connectors which have some means to prevent them being connected wrong are said to be polarized, or sometimes keyed.


A polarized North American wall plug. By having two different widths for the plug blades, the plug will only go into the outlet one way.


Contact – Contacts are the business portion of the connector. They are the metal parts which touch each other, forming an electrical connection. This is also where problems occur: the contacts can become soiled or oxidized, or the springiness required to hold the contacts together may fade with time.



Pitch – Many connectors consist of an array of contacts in a repeated pattern. The pitch of the connector is the distance from the center of one contact to the center of the next. This is important, because there are many families of contacts which look very similar but may differ in pitch, making it difficult to know that you are purchasing the right mating connector.


The pitch of the pins on the headers on a standard Arduino is .1″.

Mating cycles – Connectors have a finite life, and connecting and disconnecting them is what wears them out. Datasheets usually present that information in terms of mating cycles, and it varies widely from one technology to another. A USB connector may have a lifetime in the thousands or tens of thousands of cycles, while a board-to-board connector designed for use inside of consumer electronics may be limited to tens of cycles. It’s important that you select a connector with a suitable life for the application.

Mount – This one has the potential for being confusing. The term “mount” can refer to several things: how the connector is mounted in use (panel mount, free-hanging, board mount), what the angle of the connector is relative to its attachment (straight or right-angle), or how it is mechanically attached (solder tab, surface mount, through hole).

Here are three examples of the same connector




Strain relief – When a connector mounts to a board or cable, the electrical connections tend to be somewhat fragile. It is typical to provide some kind of strain relief to transfer any forces acting on that connector to a more mechanically sound object than the fragile electrical connections. Again, there will be some good examples of this later on.

Starin relief

This 1/8″ headphone jack comes with a strain relief “boot” slid over the cable to prevent forces on the cable from being transmitted directly to the electrical joints.


USB connectors come in two flavors: host and peripheral. In the USB standard, there is a difference between the two, and the connectors on cables and devices reflect this. However, all USB connectors will have some things in common:

  • Polarization– A USB connector can only nominally be inserted one way. It may be possible to force a connector in wrong, but that will result in damage to the device.

  • Four contacts– All USB connectors have at least four contacts (although some may have five, and USB 3.0+ connectors have even more). These are for power, ground, and two data lines (D+ and D-). USB connectors are designed to transmit 5V, up to 500mA.

  • Shielding– USB connectors are shielded, such that a metal shell which is not part of the electrical circuit is provided. This is important to keep the signal intact in environments with a lot of electrical “noise”.

  • Robust power connection– It’s important for the power pins to make connection before the data lines, to avoid trying to power the device over the data lines. All USB connectors are designed with this in mind.

  • Molded strain relief– All USB cables have plastic overmolding at the connector to prevent strain on the cable that could potentially damage the electrical connections.


USB extension cable, with some of the common features of USB connectors labeled.


USB-A female is the standard “host” connector type. This is found on computers, hubs, or any device intended to have peripherals plugged into it. It is also possible to find extension cables with a female A connector and a male A connector on the other end. (illustrated above)


Female USB-A ports on the side of a laptop. The blue connector is USB 3.0 compliant.


USB-A male is the standard “peripheral” connector type. Most USB cables will have one end terminating in a USB-A male connector, and many devices (such as keyboards and mice) will have a built-in cable terminated with a USB-A male connector. It’s also possible to find USB-A male connectors that are board mountable, for devices like USB memory sticks.

Male usb

Two types of Male USB-A connectors, on a cable and an stick development board.


USB-B female is a standard for peripheral devices. It’s bulky, but robust, so in applications where size is not an issue, it’s the preferred means for providing a removable connector for USB connectivity. It is usually a through-hole board mount connector, for maximum reliability, but there are panel-mount options for it as well.


Arduino boards, including this Uno, have long used the female USB-B connector, due to its low cost and durability.


USB-B male is almost exclusively found at the end of a cable. USB-B cables are ubiquitous and inexpensive, which also contributes to the popularity of the USB-B connection.

USBB male

USB-B male connector on the end of a SparkFun Cerberus cable.


The USB-Mini connection was the first standard attempt to reduce the size of the USB connector for smaller devices. USB-Mini female is typically found on smaller peripherals (MP3 players, older cellphones, small external hard drives), and is usually a surface mount connector, trading robustness for size. USB-Mini is slowly being phased out in favor of the USB-Micro connector

usb mini

USB-Mini female connector


USB-Mini male is another cable-only connector. As with USB-B, it’s extremely common, and cables can be found almost anywhere usually on electronic device power supply chargers.

usb mini male


USB-Micro female is found on many newer peripherals, such as digital cameras and MP3 players. The adoption of USB-micro as a standard charge port for all new cellular phones and tablet computers means that chargers and data cables are becoming increasingly common, and USB-Micro is likely to supplant USB-Mini in the coming years as the small-factor USB connector of choice.

usb micro

USB-Micro female connector


USB-Micro male is also a cable-only connector. There are generally two types of cables with USB-Micro male ends: one for connecting a device with a USB-Micro port as a peripheral to a USB host device and one for adapting the USB-Micro female port to a USB-A female port, to be used in USB-OTG capable devices.

usb micro male


USB 3.0 micro-B cables look similar to USB 2.0 micro-B connectors but they include additional pins for two differential pairs and a ground. This cable is often times seen on external storage devices.

usb 3

USB 3.0 Type A to Micro-B Cable


USB 3.1 C Cable

USB C packs 24 pins into the USB connector. Unlike the previous versions predecessors, this version is reversable! The design of the USB C cable also allows for current above 500mA for your power hungry devices.

usb c

USB 3.1 Cable A to C

Heads up! Depending on the cable, not all of the pins are broken out for USB C.

Some cables may be limited to the USB 2.0 specification with 4 pins as opposed to the full USB 3.1 specification. The reversible USB A to C cables and SuzyQable are a few examples.

Depending on the USB port that is used, you may also be limited in the amount of current that can be provided to your device.

This is it for tonight’s connector Basics.

We will continue on Audio/Visual and other types of connectors on the next segment of Connector Basics in 2 weeks.


July 5, 2020 2020 at 8pm  

“Adding an analog “S” meter to a radio with digital display.”

Tonight we will see how easy it is to add an analog meter to a radio that has a digital bargraph “S” meter, no meter at all.

The circuit is a 1 transistor circuit and is made on a 3/4″ X 3/4″ piece of circuit board material. It connects to a point in the radio where the IF signal is present ( Frank will explain).

#1 “S” Meter OriginalS Meter Original

#2 “S” Meter Circuit N2DKIS meter circuit for N2DKI (2)

#3 HTX212 with meter boardHTX with meter board

#4 Board tap point connectionSlide4

#5 HTX212 SchematicHTX212 Schematic Ful

#6 C47 Schematic pointC47 Schematic

#7 Tap Point C47Tap Point C47

#8 Meter box insideMeter box inside

#9 Calibration potentiometer close-upCal Pot Close

#10 Meter faceMeter Face

#11 Speakerspeaker

#12 Speaker TopSpeaker Top

#13 Dashboard ViewDash Board View (2)

You can see how the analog meter has good dynamic range, displaying less than half-scale on the meter while the digital bargraph is still displaying full-scale.

If you have any additional questions or comments for Frank, he can be contacted at frank@n2dki.com.

Anyone needing the parts to build this circuit can pick them up from Earl WB6AMT at his QTH in North Las Vegas.

This is a great addition to your transmitter hunting set of “Tools”, so come on out and have more fun from your ham radio.


June 28, 2020 

Field Day at the H5 location.

This year we were fortunate to be invited to the H5 repeater location to set up and operate from the QTH of WB6MIE Tony Dinkel.

Not having any HF antennas available, we had to do some setting up.

A new 8′ ground rod at the base of the HyGain AV-18VS antenna was one of the first things to enjoy doing.

A four sided grounding ring was silver soldered together, made from 2″ copper strap creating the connection point for the planned ground radials.




The Tuner was an SGC-230 Autotuner located out at the antenna base and was powered by a 12 volt gel-cel battery for the duration of the weekend as this was a temporary setup with the autotuner.


#2As-l1600 (1)

The 2,500ft roll of 14ga copper ground wire was Georgia Copper, and made silver soldering the radials to the grounding ring easy.


Ground radials were strung out to marker stakes and pulled tight. We started with four runs of over 100 feet each, and will have many more at varying lengths.


1-1/2″ Copper strap was used for the ground and the antenna connection leads.

As can be seen at the base of the vertical antenna, the base connection and loading coil with the taps for the different bands was left off of the construction of the vertical. The vertical is directly connected to the tuner’s antenna input with a copper strap.


The antenna is in the middle of the backyard of WB6MIE’s qth.

The only drawback I found with this antenna location was that the 120ft piece of feed line was short to get to the house, necessitating the addition of another piece of coax to reach the coax pigtail entering the house.



We were using 1/2″ Andrews heliax as well as a quality RG-213 coax. We were forced to use inline coupling.


The H5 repeater antenna support is 10ft piece of IMC pipe and is clamped to a railroad tie with six 2″ pipe clamps with lag bolts. There is an additional 8′ ground rod at the base of the pipe. There is a 75 ft piece of Andrews 1/2″ Superflex Heliax to the repeater.


#9 The H5 8-bay Andrews DB-408 antenna. The antenna is oriented so that the major lobes of the antenna concentrate the energy North and South onto state highway #160.


#10   The operating positionDSCN2357

#11  Our logging software was WA0H MicroLogDSCN2358

Can’t wait until next year!


June 21, 2020 at 8pm  


Every third Sunday of the month is our round table open forum “ASK the PROS” night.

Anything and everything is fair game so long as it is about communications …electronics….homebrew  or ham radio in general.


June 14, 2020 at 8pm  

“Repeater 100, Overview of Repeater Basics.”

Our guest moderator this evening is Tony Dinkel WB6MIE

What is a repeater?

To start off with, here is a typical place that you want to put a repeater. On top of a nice hill with a clear view and a fast drop in terrain to your desired coverage area. This…


Go here for Tony’s presentation.


The following audio clip was created by Dave AG7ZF so you can enjoy this evening’s narrative of the entire net.

Look for you next week!


June 7, 2020 at 8pm  

“Introduction to Surface Mount Devices soldering technologies”

Guest moderator tonight is Nate N8BSD

Please click on the link below to follow along with Nate’s discussion this evening.

Nate will pause after each slide to field any questions or comments, so speak up and don’t miss your chance to have your questions answered.


Here are the videos that Nate was talking about…enjoy





This audio clip was created by Dave AG7ZF so you can listen to everyone’s participation  of the entire net.

This will be a regular feature in the future….TNX Dave

As always this Tek Net will be archived so you may refer back and watch this slide show or the videos after the Tek Net as many times as you like.



May 31, 2020 at 8pm  

“What do you want to see from a Ham Radio Club”

With all the changes that Ham Radio Clubs have been  experiencing, I thought that it’s about time I find out what some of the annoyances are….what do you like about how clubs are now and what is something you would like see in the future.

Participate and speak your mind tonight…..


May 24, 2020 at 8pm  

“Using commercial radios on the ham bands” 

The big question…

Heard on this subject is WHY  and How do I do it?

I will be the first to admit that putting an old commercial radio on the air isn’t as easy as picking a radio up at Gigaparts or Ham Radio Outlet, that’s why it’s not for everyone.


  • QUALITY (Construction, parts)

















A little background…

#1 Older radios on ebay

 MaxTrac  (typical age – 35+ yrs old, typical price $20.00)




#2 XPR6550  (Very popular among hams)


#3 Batteries


#4 Mobile Chargers & other Accessories


#5 What  $100 will get you.  (your brand may vary)


Quality components- (drop test)

Performance- (drop test)


Service ability- (after drop test)

#6 Spurious emissions ( typical especially after drop test)


#7 Spurious emissions (commercial radio after drop)



The bottom line for me has been that using a commercial radio in Amateur service must be like “Baby’ing” it in comparison to what they were designed to go thru 8+ hours a day for years on end…your wear may vary!




May 17, 2020 at 8pm  


NO7BS, KG7QWH, WB6MIE, N8BSD and check-ins…. 


May 10, 2020 at 8pm  

“Building the Searcher Directional T-Hunt antenna kit” 

After having such a successful transmitter hunt yesterday, it was apparent that folks enjoyed getting out on a T-hunt…

Today I will review and build a Rainbow Kits SDF-1 “Searcher” antenna kit.

It has become a popular kit that a few locals use to “Sniff” the transmitter’s signal at the finish point.

When your so close to the transmitter that the signal level is so high that the receiver seems to be overloaded and a directional antenna can’t provide a directional bearing, this little 24″ dual dipole antenna really shines.

It doesn’t rely on signal strength to determine direction but rather the phase of the signal reaching the ends of the antennas.

If the signal coming into each antenna is out of phase you hear the audio tone superimposed on the modulation. Out of phase is when the ends of the antenna is not 90 degrees to the radio transmitter.

Since the antenna are phase dependent you will get a “NULL” at two points, these points are exactly 180 degrees apart.

With the antenna held in a vertical manner away from your body and rotated, the adjustable tone that the unit superimposes on the received signal will go into a null as the two antennas are brought to the same distance from the transmitter you are direction finding. At this point  the antennas are equal distances from the transmitter in two directions. By moving 15 – 20 feet off to the side you can now get a new directional bearing ( remembering your first direction and crossing your new direction or triangulate the transmitter’s location) and tell you which way you need to go.

Let’s get started…

#1  SDF-1 The Searcher by Rainbow KitsRainbow_SDF1_1

#2  What’s included in the kitRainbow_SDF1_2

#3 Clear and concise instructionsRainbow_SDF1_3

#4  Ten minutes later…Rainbow_SDF1_4

#5 Prepping antenna cables Rainbow_SDF1_5DSCN2242

#6  Getting it all togetherDSCN2243

After soldering the leads from the circuit board to the BNC connector, potentiometer and the on/off switch  install a fresh 9 volt battery.

After going thru the check out procedure in the instructions, then it’s on to the operation part of the instruction manual.DSCN2244

My personal opinion of this kit is that you can spend a lot more money for a sniffer type antenna but you won’t get as much bang for your buck as you will from this kit.

On a scale of 1 to 5, it gets a solid 5.

Note– Some heavy duty Velco holding the radio to the Searcher case makes the job a little easier, utilizing a pair of headphones was the icing on the cake for this old guy with bad hearing.

Tonight’s kit is for sale for $60, call or text me at 702-372-9891 

These kits are available from http://www.rainbowkits.com or from myself at the monthly Las Vegas Ham Radio Swap meet when I have them in stock.


May 3, 2020 at 8pm  

“IT-101” Information Technology 101

Basic IT home networking essentials

with an emphasis for using with Allstar

About KG7QWH Shane Huston…

Shane is a retired Air Force NCO, has formal Information Technology training and has also retired from operating a successful IT service company serving the Las Vegas area.

He is a Microsoft Certified Systems Engineer and brings a wealth of computer knowledge to the Tek Net today.

Shane welcomes your questions and comments, his mission is to assist us over some of these hurdles that can be extremely nerve racking (at least for me!).

Tonight is not the night to just sit back and listen….get those computer questions answered this evening in a clear and concise manner.

Here is Shane’s narrative, is suggested that you print this document out and follow along or refer back to it after tonight’s Tek Net.

May 3 Teknet_latest




KG7QWH Shane has been an active participant on the HARC’s  Tek Net since it began 10 months ago and is one of our regular “PROS” on Ask The Pros Night.

Shane frequents the HARC repeater network’s H2 & H3 repeaters.

You can send your questions to Shane at:  AGERanger10@gmail.com


April 26, 2020 at 8pm  

“Open Forum Night, anything goes!”

Lets talk about whatever is on anyone’s mind.

Antennas or antenna builds…

DYI projects your doing…


“Q” signals for the COVID-19 Times

QLD – I am Locked down.

QUA – I am quarantined.

QPD – I am in a pandemic.

QTP – I have toilet paper, want to trade for a car?

QFC –  I am flattening the curve.

QHG – I need a hug.

QSH – I am sheltering in place.

QHS – I have hand sanitizer, Want to trade for a car?

QSD – I am observing social distancing.

QVC – I hate Coronovirus.

Borrowed from the Fair Lawn (NJ) Amateur Radio Club April 2020 

April 19, 2020 at 8pm  


This being the third weekend of the month, tonight is the regularly scheduled “STUMP THE CHUMPS” night.

This is your opportunity to ask those questions that you think our regular “Experts” may stumble on or may not be able to answer.


April 12, 2020 at 8pm  

“Building a radio using the NiceRF SA-818 Walkie-talkie module”

#1 NiceRF.com  Analog & DMR modulesNiceRF_products

#1B  Where to get these componentsNiceRF

#2A SA-818 VHF/UHF Walkie-talkie moduleDSCN2108

#2B Technical DataDSCN2089

#3A EasyEDA Schematic/ PCB softwareDSCN2075

#3B  Radio schematicSchematic_MaxTrac Node Radio_Sheet_1_20200412125039

#5A Original breadboard version of the radioDSCN2097

#5B (back) point to point wiring methodDSCN2098

#6A Laying out the printed circuit boardDSCN2112

#6B How the finished unit looksDSCN2113

#7A  Bare boards delivered 3-4 days laterDSCN2099

#7B  SA-818 and parts installedDSCN2100

#7C  Assembly instructionsSA-818 Carrier Board

#7D DSCN2103

#7E   Solder filletsDSCN2101

#8A  Programming with the SU-108 program moduleDSCN2115

#8B  Select #9 “Start Bash Shell Interface”DSCN2125

#8C  At the prompt enter < 818-prog > DSCN2084

#9A  Radio installed into the projectDSCN2094

#9B  Allstar node in Maxtrac chassis


#9C Radio to Interconnect boardDSCN2096

#10A  Interconnect board wiringInterconnect Wiring


Printed circuit board kits are available from WB6AMT@cox.net, Paypal invoice will be sent back to you for payment, items are mailed that day.

SA-818 Carrier board parts kit – $12.00 each (minus SA-818 module)

(Plus shipping)

VOIP Interconnect board parts kit – $12.00 each  (Plus shipping)

AR4  4Amp Adjustable Regulator parts kit – $15.00 each  (Plus shipping)

April 5, 2020 at 8pm  

“FCC testing online”

KJ7NNU Joe is our guest tonight.

Press release on his testing session….


Enter the above in to your browser and read how Joe took his test for his Technician license from the comfort of his home.


March 29, 2020 at 8pm  

“How the COVID-19 has impacted Ham Radio” is tonight’s topic.

This will be an open forum style net.

Let’s hear how it has effected you and your ability to enjoy ham radio.

Staying home has this been the opportunity you needed to get on HF a little more.

Have you decided that now would be a good time to start a new project…possibly build a new circuit?

I have a treat for anyone starting a new build and needing components…..


March 22, 2020 at 8pm  

“Introduction to Software Defined Radios” will be tonight’s topic.

N8BSD Nate has put together a very informative presentation for everyone to follow along here.

Click on the above to start his presentation. To make a slide larger click on that image, then click on it to return back to the presentation.

He has a lot of photos and information to share tonight.

Take lots of notes and have your questions ready.

You can send your questions or comments directly to Nate at  <n8bsd0@gmail.com>


March 15, 2020 at 8pm  

“ASK THE PROS” will be tonight’s topic.



TRW SWAPMEET in Long Beach is cancelled until further notice.


Yesterday was the Fourth Annual ARES/Races 2020 Ham Radio Rodeo.

The event was hosted at the QTH of Frank N7ZEV and his wife Linda KC7IIT

This event puts a few Las Vegas ARES/RACES ham radio operators on display with their emergency preparedness vehicle setups.

A few of the vehicles









Various antennas in use





















Handheld Frequency & Deviation Clinic was available






March 8, 2020 at 8pm  

“DC Power Distribution” will be tonight’s topic.

People that do two-way radio mobile installations often times have a personal set of ideas or techniques that were taught to them or developed over time from installing mobile radios into many different locations in vehicles. and solving the problems encountered.

Attention to your vehicle’s electrical system capability is needed so that you don’t over tax the vehicle’s charging system.

Up grading to a premium battery will keep from causing headaches down the road.

If you are running a 100 watt HF rig, you should have a larger battery and upgrade your alternator to keep the battery up while transmitting and so that your antenna will see that 100 watts the radio is producing.

Typical mobile installation



All wiring that is done in a vehicle has to have proper fuse protection as close to the battery or positive power distribution point to break the path in case of a excessive current demand or damage to power leads causing contact to chassis metal.

#1A  High Current ProtectionDSCN2046

#1B High Current car stereo amp fuses


#2A Proper Vehicle Grounding/ Bonding



For maximum performance from the radio and to also insure that your DC power system will have a minimum of ignition/ alternator noise. This cuts down on the possibility of non-bonded surfaces from creating rectification noise where moving metal surfaces touch during movement or vibration. This can occur during receiving or transmitting.

#3A Power Distribution Points #8Ga feed


#3B  Anderson Power Poles makes it easy.DSCN2043

#3C HD Barrier strip distribution pointDSCN2049





#4B  Trunk area installation


Dual 55Amp Gel-cel installation, piece of acrylic plastic snaps over the connection bar.

#4C Cable management


Use rubber covered metal clamps when managing cable routes.

The following is for entertainment purposes only.

The scarey part is that someone actually thought that what they did in these installations were acceptable!

#5 DON’T EVER DO THIS…35518483_10155844956734635_9021045348835000320_n






Hope everyone enjoyed tonight’s topic. 73


March 1, 2020 at 8pm  

Using “Radio Mobile Online” Antenna Plotting software

Tonight’s moderator is Tony Dinkel WB6MIE on the uses of and how to take full advantage of this antenna propagation plotting tool.

Radio Mobile authored by VE2DBE.

This program is available for free and with only a few limitations frequency wise has the ability to plot paths between two locations and with the appropriate data input will display a wealth of information allowing you to optimize your repeater site’s performance.

This is also being used by many of the Las Vegas Mesh Node sites.

To download the software follow this link:


The installation instructions are very well documented and is easy to follow.

There is also a Yahoo users group that has a plethora of information on this program and is a great place for the exchange of ideas, tips, help and support from other users.


There is also an excellent Radio Mobile Online tutorial located here  http://pizon.org/rmw/

This site also has several other RF tools, formula calculators used for designing radio links.

  • Antenna Downtilt Angle

  • Downtilt Coverage Radius

  • Fresnel Zone

  • System Operating Margin

  • Watts to dBm

#1  5.8GHz path from Apex to WB6AMT QTH

apex-amazon plot


#3  Coverage plot of H1 repeater from Seven HillsH1_coverage

#4  Coverage are display of the C1 repeater on Pleasants Pk in Ca.C1Coverage

Any questions about this program or if you need clarification on using it can be sent to Tony’s email: wb6mie@outlook.com 

or to my email: wb6amt@cox.net

See you next week!


February 23, 2020 at 8pm  

Ground systems from the R56 manual

Motorola’s Standards and Guidelines for Communications Sites R56 Manual has been the go to handbook for those designing, building and maintaining a commercial communications site.

Our discussion this evening will talk about an issue that has occurred on the Henderson Amateur Radio Club’s Apex site.

That being a 60Hz hum that can be heard when a signal is no longer being received and for the duration that the transmitter is still transmitting (Squelch tail duration).

Ground Loop Hum is caused by a difference in electrical potential at grounding points. … When you have more than one piece of equipment in your system connected to a common ground through different paths at different ground potential, like different outlets on the same circuit, you can get a ground loop.

The following link will allow you to download and save The Motorola Standards and Guidelines for Communications Site Manual to your local computer, so that everyone can follow along and be on the same page (literally).


Some of what we will touch on is:

-Common Grounding ( Earthing) page 4-5

There shall only be one grounding electrode system. This include the AC power system ground, communications tower ground, lightening protection system ground, telephone system ground, exposed structural building steel, under ground metallic piping that enters the facility and any other ground system shall all be bonded together to form a single grounding electrode system.

#1Common Ground

Besides the ground elements shown above there could also be:

  • Fence grounding conductors

  • Tower guy wire ground conductors

  • Radial ground conductors

The main purpose of the grounding electrodes in the earth are to maintain the electrical equipment at the same potential as the earth.

The UL approved ground rod shall be constructed of copper-clad steel, solid copper, hot-dipped galvanized steel or stainless steel.

Stainless steel ground rods shall be formed of an austenitic stainless steel of the 18% chromium, 8 % nickel type.

According to code, the upper end of the ground rod shall be buried to a minimum depth of 24″ below the surface of earth.

#2Ground Rod Installation

Electrolytic Ground systems

#3Electrolytic ground

Grounding conductor shall be a minimum of #2AWG unless it is a lightening prone area or a military installation and it shall be a minimum of #1/0 AWG.

This conductor may be stranded , however the recommended stranded conductor shall be tinned.

Solid, bare, tinned, copper conductors should be used to minimize the galvanic corrosion between other parts of the grounding electrode system.

Open discussion about Apex.

February 16, 2020 

ASK THE PRO’S night.

There is going to be a little recap on some of last weeks discussion on “How my signal gets to the repeater”.

As we were closing the Tek Net last week there were a few issues that were left out of the discussion.

WB6MIE  Tony Dinkel will attempt to be on the net tonight from out of town to answer your follow-up questions.

Earl WB6AMT will ask “When was your first time participating at a Field Day event”.

What did you find unique about that experience?
















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What will your next field day setup be like? 


February 9, 2020 at 8pm

How does my signal get to the repeater?

This evenings guest speaker is:


Tony Dinkel WB6MIE.

Tony has over 4 decades of experience in the commercial communications field and will bed able to answer all your questions on tonight’s topic.

It travels through the air…right? But there are always other factors in radio signal propagation. The best path from a transmitter to a receiver is always an “optical” path. That is, if you can see the receiver antenna, you have the best chance having an acceptable signal into the receiver.

Here is a good example of an optical path to our Apex H2 repeater:


apex-amazon plot

I picked a location very near to apex and I had to model 50 meter high antennas to get this path profile



By the way, this is propagation modeling software producing what is called a “path profile”. You are looking at a side view of the path from Apex Peak to the Amazon Tropical distribution center parking lot in North Las Vegas. This is a slice of the atmosphere and the earth terrain elevation directly below the center of the path. This type of plot is not commonly associated with repeaters. Repeater people usually work with a “coverage map”, a type of plot which predicts the signal amplitude that you can usually expect over a large geographic area.

The following is a coverage plot of the H1 repeater from Seven Hills in Henderson.


I use point to point path profiles to understand why my signal sounds good or so bad from a specific location. Also, this type of plot is much better for understanding the concepts that I’m trying to explain.

From a professional standpoint, when we need to construct a radio communication circuit, radio system engineers will use tools like this as a “design” aid. Engineers build systems that need to work 24/7/366. Once the system is built with a particular purpose in mind, it has to work. It can’t fade in and out over the course of a day, week or year. This is referred to as five nines of reliability. That means that our systems have to be available with very few unavailable seconds every day, every year, for the life of the system. Some systems I have installed have been up for over 30 years with no outage time, at least related to propagation anomalies. As hams, we are usually working with walkie talkies. When we push the tx button on our walkie talkies, we are taking a chance that the location we are at can “see” our receiver site and that we can communicate acceptably.

If our signal levels are not acceptable, we need to understand why and be able to make changes to communicate reliably, especially if the location we are transmitting from is important to us, such as our home or base station location.

I typically work with microwave radios for my communication circuits. These employ much higher frequencies, wider bandwidth and complex modulation waveforms. This changes the physics a little bit but the basic concepts remain the same.

I also use very directional antennas that focus the radio signals in fairly tight patterns that are aimed at my endpoints, so very little signal is wasted.

Your walkie talkie does not typically use a directional antenna, it uses an omni-directional antenna. So you most likely waste about 99% of your signal energy that never gets to the repeater.

But what if it does somehow get to the repeater by a reflection? This is referred to as “multi-path” propagation and is most likely the primary mode for ham radio communication in the Las Vegas valley. But what is bad for a point to point microwave circuit is not necessarily bad for ham radio.

In the real world, we can’t always have an optical propagation path. Just from traveling through space, an RF signal loses power. This is partially due to attenuation from the atmosphere itself and the distance that it has to travel. Obstructions, such as the walls of a house or building can cause signal loss too. Mountains and earth curvature can also play a roll in attenuation

Here is a typical multipath propagation plot from H2 to Shane Huston’s house in Henderson:


From this plot you can see that Shane’s direct path to H2 is completely blocked by terrain. Does this mean that he cannot to talk to H2? Not really, I have talked to him at his home through H2 many times. His signal either gets diffracted over the terrain, diffracted around the obstructions or reflected across the valley, probably a combination of all of these modes. Would this path work for a digital microwave system as shown? Absolutely no.

Thankfully, narrowband FM ham radio can take advantage of these anomalous propagation modes.

Now I’ve used several technical words here and I feel like I need to elaborate a little. Attenuation simply means a reduction of something, in this case, a reduction in the power of your signal getting to the repeater. There are some other technical words I’ve used in this paper such as “amplitude”. Amplitude is simply the absolute value of something at an instant in time. For the purpose of this paper, amplitude will refer to values of your signal power in transit to the repeater. Then there is “phase”. Phase is kind of a complex concept but I will try to explain it as best I can. It comes into play when you do not have a perfect optical path to the repeater antenna. If you have an obstructed path to the repeater, diffraction or reflections can cause a mirror image of your signal to arrive at the repeater antenna together with your direct signal. This can often be more than one multipathed signal and their relative amplitudes and phase relationships determine if the signals add or subtract. Think of phase as related to time delay. If one of your signals takes a detour because of a reflection from a large building, it takes a longer path to the repeater antenna. This means that it also takes a longer time for the reflected signal to get to the antenna. If any of you remember the ghosting effect that you would see on old analog television pictures, that was caused by a reflected signal and the direct signal arriving at your TV antenna slightly out of phase or time. A mirror image would be offset and appear as a ghost image in the tv picture.

This is the effect of multipath propagation.

Now that I have mentioned the repeater antenna, this is what it looks like:



The repeater antenna is an eight element or eight bay antenna. All eight of these elements are combined into a coaxial phasing harness that maintains the phase relationship to a high level of accuracy so that a signal arriving in phase at all eight elements is properly summed into one coax and fed to the receiver. The signal from your walkie talkie has to hit all eight of these dipole elements with equal phase and amplitude to be properly repeated.

In narrowband FM voice transmission, as opposed to old school analog tv, there is no picture to offset but the effect is similar. Delayed signals can cause distortion in your voice modulation or they can vary your received signal amplitude as received at the repeater. It can appear that your signal is weaker or stronger than it should be. If the signals arrive at pretty much the same amplitude but are exactly 180° out of phase, your signal will cancel out and you will not be heard. This is why when you move your hand held radio around inside your house, you will notice peaks and nulls in your received signal. You are actively varying the amplitude and phase of multiple copies of the signal arriving at your receive antenna. You instinctively move your radio around to get the best signal. And hopefully, the place where you have optimal receive signal from the repeater is also where you will be able to place optimal signal into the repeater antenna. Unfortunately, the reflections and diffractions that occur on your transmit path are not always the same as on your receive path. You may also notice that your hot spots and cold spots tend to move around in your house. This is because of many factors some of which are, atmospheric density varies, water vapor content changes and this all affects the refraction index of the air your signal has to travel through.



February 2, 2020 at 8pm  

Analog vs Digital Radio Performance

Tonight’s guest speaker is Skyler W0SKY.

Skyler has created a video showing the real life performance differences between the different digital and analog radios while traveling over the same route.

The agenda will be as follows;

  • Station check-ins

  • Introduction to Skyler W0SKY

  • Everyone click on the link and watch his video. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=KzwB3RcT2KE

  • Open up our discussion for questions or comments addressed to Skyler.

  • Tek Net wrap up.

January 19, 2020 at 8pm  

5G Service…what is it really

Last minute notes from CES 2020 has introduced some newer information on 5G devices and service. Thanks to Lawrence N6YFN.

We have all heard the hype about how 5G is going to be the best service yet, 100 times faster…. Well maybe.

Every day you hear commercials about how one mobile carrier is faster or has better coverage than the others.

They throw around terms like 4G, LTE, and 5G and expect people to know what they are.

As far as the average person is concerned, five is higher than four, so it must be better — right?   Maybe.

Tonight’s Tek Net will be your guide to how a basic wireless networks operate and some of what we can expect from 5G.

If a deeper understanding is wanted, researching any of the terms will give a more in-depth explanation than what we cover tonight in one hour.

#15G 5 generation network mobile symbol hologram


CDMA – Code-division multiple access is a channel access method used by various radio communication technologies to allow multiple access at the same time.

TDMA (time division multiple access) is a technology used in digital cellular telephone communication that divides each cellular channel into three time slots in order to increase the amount of data that can be carried.

FDMA – (Frequency division multiple access) allows multiple users to send data through a single communication channel , such as a coaxial cable or microwave beam, by dividing the bandwidth of the channel into separate non-overlapping frequency sub-channels and allocating each sub-channel to a separate user.

MIMOMultiple Inputs/ Multiple Outputs for data handling ( both Cellular and Wifi service) 2X,4X, 4X4 

MU-MIMO – (Multi User Multiple Input, Multiple Output)

NFVNetwork Function Virtualization ( prerequisite for network slicing )

mMTC – (Massive Machine Type Communications) IoT applications

Mesh WIFI – ( Private systems at first )

CBRS – Citizen Broadband Radio Service (CBRS) at 3.5 GHz is about to become available

5G ACIAAlliance for Connected Industries and Automation (5G ACIA) Industrial & factory usage.

MNO – Mobile Network Operator ( Typically a mobile network services, cellular provider)

MNOS – Is a Unix-like OS developed in the Soviet Union. It was derived from Unix Version 6 and consequently heavily modified to incorporate many features of BSD Unix.

256QAM – Quadrature Amplitude Modulation  802.11 Wi-Fi standard ( conveys two 90-degere out of phase analog message signals, or two digital bit streams)

Video Optimization – delivery rate for streaming video, which causes the video to be delivered in lower resolutions and to use less data and speed up network speeds for data users.

NB IoT – Narrow-band IoT, a communication standard for IoT devices to operate via carrier networks, using existing GSM carrier wave, in an unused “guard band” between LTE channels, or independently.

PAN – Personal Area Network (Confined), IEEE wireless personal area network standard 802.15.3c, the 802.11ad Wi-Fi standard and 802.11ay standard all specify the 60 GHz band.


At their most basic, wireless networks work in the same way as any telephone or radio that’s been around for a hundred years.

Information is processed, encoded into a radio signal, and sent to another receiver. The receiver decodes the signal and does the whole process over again.

Some of these transmissions are one-way, like the radio in your car, or like your television set that receives signals OTA (Over The Air) or Weather alerts to you cell, but most networks transmit information back and forth.

Instead of calling and receiving like a phone, wireless networks use data downloading and uploading.

When you click on the Facebook app on your phone, your phone receives (or downloads) the encoded information from the Facebook server using radio waves, and decodes it so that the display on your phone can see what your friend ate for dinner last night. When you want to send her the filtered picture you took of that dinner, your phone encodes the photo into digital information so that your cell (radio) is able to transmit those radio waves (or uploads) it to the Facebook server for decoding and posting.

3G, 4G, LTE and 5G are all just ways to make that process faster and process more data in less time.




The electromagnetic spectrum is the highway over which wireless operates, with multiple lanes capable of carrying traffic at different speeds.  Higher frequencies – and thus shorter wavelengths – are able to move more information per unit of time.

An easy-to-understand example of this is a basic walkie-talkie. Changing the channel on a walkie-talkie changes the radio frequency at which it operates. You and your friend need to be talking on the same frequency to hear each other. People at other frequencies aren’t going to hear you. The busier the frequency (Frequency congestion or channel loading), the harder it’s going to be for you and your friend to communicate. It’s the same for mobile networks.



What does “G” stand for?

When looking at 3G, 4G, and 5G, the “G” stands for the generation of technology. For example, 5G will be the fifth generation of wireless network technology. Each generation has set standards.

Currently, to be considered a true 4G network, connection speeds need to be at least 100 megabits per second (Mbps) at their peak. For reference, 25Mbps is needed for peak video streaming.

When these standards were announced, 100Mbps speeds were unheard of, which made some wireless companies nervous. They were making strides in technology but couldn’t advertise them truthfully yet.

That’s where LTE comes in.

LTE is in line with the phrase “sort of.” It stands for “long-term evolution” and is used to describe technology that’s attempting to reach the 4G standard. If your phone displayed a 4G LTE symbol, you didn’t have true 4G speeds, but you were close. You “sort of” have 4G.



Ericsson AIR5121 4 with traditional LTE microcell on left

Although the basic principles of the technology have largely remained the same, the radio frequencies that each generation operates on have fluctuated.

4G doesn’t work on the same frequencies as 3G, and 5G won’t work on the same frequencies as 4G.

That means that with each rollout, new hardware needs to be developed to handle the new generation. If you have a 4G phone, it will never be able to truly manage a 5G connection….so yes you will have to buy a new phone to use that technology.

Each form of wireless technology uses different radio frequencies.

To reach the speeds necessary for 5G, mobile carriers are looking at using higher frequencies that aren’t being used as much for cellular service at this time and would offer more bandwidth to do more signal processing.

The problem is that higher radio frequencies don’t have as much range as lower frequencies, which means less coverage area. But, if carriers can solve the coverage issue, high-frequency 5G will offer multi-gigabyte-per-second speeds (up to 10 times faster than 4G), latency (responsiveness) as low as one millisecond, and allow much more traffic than 4G.

#5  COMPARING 1G to 5G




#5B Supporting Companies


#5C Current Global Usage5G-mmWave-28GHz-CEPT-report-spectrum

#6   “CON’s” OF 5G


Tests are showing that current 5G devices battery reserves are approximately 4 hours or less.

Due to the increased frequencies needed to support 5G service there is a problem with heat being generated by the devices inside the cell phone and it’s inability to dissipate this heat adequately.


Carriers are already starting to unveil their 5G-E networks, although some of them is not true 5G NR yet.

From T-Mobile website:

” At this time T-Mobile has what they call 5G E ( actually rebranded LTE Advanced) service operational now, however during channel congestion, customers using 50Gb or more will notice reduced speeds due to data prioritization. “

Verizon, Sprint and ATT are all rolling out versions of 5G-E and are evolving very quickly.



They also don’t have much true 5G mobile equipment available yet because of the limited infrastructure.

Much like 4G LTE, 5G Evolution ( Or LTE Advanced) is the precursor to true 5G NR.

People wanting the high speeds and low latency of 5G will likely still have to wait a few years.



Network Function Virtualization (NFV) is a prerequisite for network slicing, intelligence at the edge and other essential 5G features that will power the delivery of IoT and AI-based services.

Security issues, standards development and the requisite CPU horsepower to drive virtual functions are some of the many obstacles being tackled by NFV developers.


The millimeter wave is another essential 5G ingredient that can present technological and logistical challenges. Due to the limited range and inability to transmit through solid objects, the sheer volume of antennae required introduces hurdles that can only be addressed through methodical, incremental deployment.

Spectral efficiency, measured in (bit/s)/Hz, is currently gated by the Shannon Limit which defines the maximum rate that data can be sent over any medium with zero error.

This theoretical ceiling is much less than what is expected and required for 5G deployment. Only Massive MIMO, MU-MIMO and beamforming, utilizing large antenna arrays, will enable 5G to effectively circumvent this natural speed limit.

It’s estimated that no sooner than 2021 or 2022 and no later than 2028, most carriers will offer true 5G NR networks and true 5G NR-specific devices……meaning that it will be NEW CELL PHONE shopping time.

The amount of technology and data concerning 5G NR is absolutely daunting.

With all the new releases and introduction of 5G NR equipment and devices at CES 2020 this week, I encourage you to research any aspects of tonight’s topic so that you can get all the latest information and answers you seek.


January 12, 2020 at 8pm  

Radio Modulation, your microphone and how to talk to it.

Tonight we will destroy several myths that some folks have about modulation with sound technical and engineering facts.

Tonight’s moderators have a combined field experience in the commercial and broadcast communications field of over 100 years, take advantage of that fact tonight.

Those of you that feel you have this down pat …..don’t go away, but participate in the discussion. You may leave tonight’s TekNet with a piece of information that you didn’t know, how cool would that be.

I strongly urge the newer users to FM communications to take some notes, and ask questions so that this information is completely understood.

Your going to see how and why it is so extremely important for you to learn how to talk to your microphone.

Why and how proper transmitter deviation can mean the difference between you being heard and understood even in a weak or low signal quality condition.











January 5, 2020

Capacitor, ESR testing and recapping equipment

The moderator for tonight is NO7BS Kirk

#1A Capacitor Wizard


#1B Vintage Checker


#1C Newer Cap Checkers (single board)




#3 Leaking Caps


#4 Good 470uf


#5 Good .01uf


#6 Bad .01uf


#7 High Voltage Caps


#8 Start Cap


#9 Bad caps that were changed in the last few months



December 29, 2019

LED’s & how to use them.

Design terms disclaimer— Tonight is not the place to go into the finite calculations of ohm’s law. Not all LED’s & transistor parameters are the same, but are readily available for your design considerations when designing a circuit from a plethora of sources.

LED’s, what are they really?

An LED, which stands for light emitting diode, is a semiconductor diode that glows when a voltage is applied.

In comparison to an incandescent light bulb, the incandescent light bulb works by running electricity through a filament that is inside the glass bulb. The filament heats up and glows, and that creates the light, however, it also creates a lot of heat. The incandescent light bulb loses about 98% of its energy producing heat making it quite inefficient.

The LEDs are based on the effect of electroluminescence, that certain materials emit light when electricity is applied. LEDs have no filament that heats up, instead, they are illuminated by the movement of electrons in a semiconductor material, usually aluminum-gallium-arsenide (AlGaAs). The light emits from the p-n junction of the diode.

When did this research start? (A little history)

Discovered in 1907 by British radio researcher and assistant to Guglielmo Marconi, Henry Joseph Round, while experimenting with silicon carbide and a cat’s whisker.

It wasn’t until years later in 1961, Robert Biard and Gary Pittman invented and patented an infrared LED for Texas Instruments. This was the first LED, however, being infrared it was beyond the visible light spectrum. Humans can not see infrared light. Ironically, Baird and Pittman only accidentally invented a light emitting diode while the pair were actually attempting to invent a laser diode.

In 1962, Nick Holonyack, a consulting engineer for General Electric Company, invented the first visible light LED. It was a red LED and Holonyack had used gallium arsenide phosphide as a substrate for the diode.

Holonyack is called the “Father of the light emitting diode” for his contribution to the technology.

In 1972, M George Craford invented the first yellow colored LED for the Monsanto Company using gallium arsenide phosphide in the diode. Craford also invented a red LED that was 10 times brighter than Holonyack’s.

It should be noted that the Monsanto Company was the first to mass-produce visible LEDs. In 1968, Monsanto produced red LEDs used as indicators. But it was not until the 1970s that LEDs became popular when Fairchild Optoelectronics began producing low-cost LED devices (less than five cents each) for manufacturers.

In 1976, Thomas P. Pearsall invented a high-efficiency and extremely bright LED for semiconductor materials optimized for optical fiber transmission wavelengths.

In 1994, Shuji Nakamura invented the first blue LED using gallium nitride.

Are LED’s AC or DC?

LED’s are a device that responds to a dc voltage between the P-N junction of a diode.

LED’s are very sensitive to current and should normally be used with a current limiting resistor to allow no more than 20-22ma of current to flow through the junction.

This is not a hard rule, as IR LED’s typically operate at 100ma depending on frequency and output and can handle as much as 1amp pulse. 




20191228_184802_Film3 - Copy (2)

Using the correct current limiting resistor, LED’s can respond to AC and DC voltages. Remember the positive half of a sine wave.

For example to use an LED with 12 volts DC a resistor of 560 ohm is (minimum) is correct for 22ma., for 5 volts DC  a resistor of 150 ohms is correct for each segment of a 7-segment LED display (photo #8) or individual led. You can always use a higher resistance to provide lower current to the diode or for overall lower circuit current consumption. A higher ohmic value can be used if the led is too bright.

#3  8000mcd White

20191228_180847_Film3 - Copy (2)


20191228_180915_Film3 - Copy

Many of today’s led’s are very bright compared to led’s manufactured just a few  years ago. I use 4.7k resistors for some newer High Output leds that are extremely bright and being sold as regular LED’s.

Here I am testing an LED with a 2032 Lithium battery, there is no need for a current limiting resistor here.

#5 400mcd Red (pre 2005)


#6  2000mcd Red (2018)


Different types

#7 IR, Bi-color, Dual LED, Multi-color


#8  7-segment display


What can we use LED’s for and how?

One of the most common uses is to tell you if your circuit is energized or operating properly.

Example is the green led on most new radios indicating power on or a received signal and red to indicate the transmitter PTT line is active. 

A few schematics…


Multi-color and RGB LED’s

Due to the complexity of the micro controllers that are built into each of these 64 color LED’s, Pixels contained within the intelligent digital interface data latch signal shaping amplification circuit, power supply circuit, a built-in constant current circuit, high precision RC oscillator, the output is driven by the patented PWM technology, effectively guarantee the pixels in the color of the light high consistency.

I am saving this technology for a future Tek Net. As you can see it is very involved and will have it’s own Tek Net.

Some future topics…I would like your vote tonight.

1- Preventive Maintenance

2- Roll your own, DIY building accessories

3- Test Equipment, Buying, Building, Restoring, Using

4- HF Equipment & antennas, Choosing what works for you

5- Power Supplies Analog, Switching

6- Station Grounding, AC & DC

7- Coax Cable, What is junk or Gold?

8- Sunspot activity is coming, get ready.

9- Satellite Communications, What you need to do to do it.

10- Digital modes, What makes them different

11- Capacitor, ESR testing and recapping equipment


December 15, 2019  

All about the popular 18650 Lithium ion battery (almost)

For informational purposes only, DO NOT DUPLICATE!

Anyone doing anything that is shown here tonight is doing it on their own and I am not responsible for your actions or outcomes.

Keep in mind that not using a battery incorrectly or not following proper charging specifications can result in burns, fire, cells rupturing (exploding) and damage to your equipment that the battery is installed in.

First thing…when dealing with and handing batteries, wear eye protection and always exercise cautious handing with all batteries and prevent the terminals from shorting against any metal objects by their terminals.

Those not agreeing with some of the information here or wanting to add to the discussion, that is what our question and comments are for, do participate. I am NOT an expert on the Lithium-ion battery chemistry, but I do attempt to know as much as I can when working with electronic components….including batteries.

To be able to cover as much as possible on the different aspects of the 18650 please go online to dig deeper into the facts that will be touched on tonight.

Some concerns of the popular 18650 Lithium-ion battery to be discussed.


POPULARITY – ( what do they replace)

The new King of the Hill in batteries. Automotive uses.


The two types of lithium-ion cells are called PROTECTED and NON-PROTECTED

NON-PROTECTED are strictly the cells without a BMS (Battery Management System)

PROTECTED Cells have a BMS circuit board (normally on the bottom end of the cell).

Larger battery packs will have the circuit board under the shrink wrap of the battery pack. Some different types.


  • Besides protecting your cells from being overcharged and over-discharged, over temperature, they will also try to keep all your cells voltage to be at the same value. This is called cell balancing.

  • s-l300


Nominal voltage is 3.6-3.7 volts.

A charged 18650 is 4.2 volts and a cell is considered discharged at 3.3 volts. 


The big four quality 18650 manufacturers are SONY, SAMSUNG, SANYO & LG.

maxresdefault (1)

Often times you can determine real from fake or counterfeit battery is by downloading the datasheet for the battery you have and note the weight.

The best confirmed capacity original cell at this point has 3400mAh. Second, their weight is lighter. Original cells are 45grams+. Fakes have mostly under 40g, and the worst quality ones are even 20g. Those have an effective capacity of under 500mAh, even if they state 4000mAh+ on the label.

And there’s also the 99.998% fakes called Ultrafire. Practically, all Ultrafire cells on the online market that state any capacity over 3000mAh are fakes. Since there are other fake cells with fake-stated capacity, they have stated capacities of over 4000mAh, which is not currently possible.



Most Samsung cells in circulation are kind of Cyan color. Note that other smaller companies use this color, but only the Samsung’s have Samsung written on them.

Here is the color (light green) I’m talking about – in this picture we have a 2000mAh cell. Same color can be found for 2200mAh (most common) and 2400mAh.


Since for 2000,2200 and 2400 mAh cell things can get confusing when it comes to colors, the best way to identify capacity is from the end of the line number in the first text line on the cell (the row where it says 18650). As you can see in the pictures, that’s exactly what 20,22,24,26 and 30 mean – it’s the capacity tag for any Samsung cells. So you can now identify any Samsung cell.


Most Sanyo cells are RED (RGB: 255,0,0), or the new fakeRED (RGB: 255,0,64) that’s infested with blue (we’ll talk about that later). They are the most hard to identify overall.

This is how a real red cell suppose to look like (RGB: 255,0,0):

The 2000mAh original ones are indeed red by any standards. The cap is white. So if it’s pure red ones it’s 2000mAh capacity. The newer ones were also fakered, but the cap is still white.
Here they are:

The 2200mAh cells and above are fakered. It’s hard to detect in a picture, but there’s a clear tendency towards purple for those.
You can tell the cells that have 2200mAh capacity be the RED cap. The cap is true red, unlike the rest of the cell.
The 2600mAh ones are also fakered, but those have cyan cap.

The high power cells (like the high current 1500mAh ones used in power tools) have a pink or light blue cap.
So, to identify the Sanyo cell, you’ll have to use actual color nuance and cap color, since the series written on them are most of the time barely visible.


Sony are standard green. All of them are the same green. The way to identify them is the G-number.
On the second line, the first number after the G is the capacity identifier.



The good thing is that they can be identified very easy by color.

The 2000mAh cells are pale orange.


The 2200mAh are grey. They are still one of the most common LG batteries.

Probably the most used LG cell today is the 2600mAh one which is orange.

LG also has some new cells rated at 3100mAh.

Each manufacturer has a trick: for Samsung you have to check the tag at the end of the line, for Sanyo the cap color and for Sony the G-spot and for LG just the cell color.


First off, that’s why they make batteries with solder tabs. However…

If you are going to solder on to 18650’s, here is some tips for success.

  1. Use a 60 watt soldering iron with a chisel or conical tip at least 1/8″ wide.

  2. Silver-Bearing  (62/36/2) solder or at least a quality 60/40 solder.

  3. Using a sandpaper or a fine file, scuff the surface you are going to solder. About an 1/8″ is big enough

  4. Tin the wire that your going to attach.

  5. While holding the wire down on the scuffed area firmly, apply a small amount of solder, it should flow immediately. Remove the iron, not moving the wire.

  6. This should only take about 1/4 second, if the solder doesn’t want to flow as described, your iron tip is loosing it’s heat and is probably to small for the job.


When an 18650 battery always shows that it is not charging or charged (normally a green light) but has a voltage of 2 volts can cause the charger to misread the battery and over-charge causing over-heating.

With a properly charged good battery (measure +4.2 volts) you can sometimes jump start a cell by connecting the good cell (same type and size) with a pair of clip leads to your SICK battery for no more than 20 seconds. Positive to positive and negative to negative, while feeling the batteries for over-heating. The battery being jump charged may be a little warm. Measure the battery voltage and if it is over 3 volts, cycle it through a charge cycle in your charger.

Often times you have just resurrected your battery back from the dead.

When charging lithium-ion cells always check and see that they are not overly hot, as cells go bad they develope chemical issues that can cause excessive heat and internal gases to build up.

When in doubt, if they are out of waranty…to be on the safe side…..trash them.


For informational purposes only DO NOT DUPLICATE!



For a video, go to https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=1w3Tv1Jg0ps

Quality 18650 battery chargers –

18650 Chargers



Here is a downloadable nine page document with additional information about the 18650 battery :

18650 Cells

Google 18650 batteries for more ( a LOT more) data on this new KING of The HILL in batteries.

See you next week!


December 8, 20

19  Tek Net will be on….WINTER FIELD DAY – January 28-29

Where will it be in 2020?

Times available.

Will you commit to being an operator or logger?

How about an attendee to help out with visitor control?

Have you participated in Winter Field Day before and where?

What bands do you prefer to operate?

Do you operate a radio or prefer to be a logger on the computer?

Do you have a radio or antenna to loan for the event?

Can you assist with setting up the operating positions?

What are your suggestions for field day based on your past experiences?


December 1, 2019

Grounding concerns from Motorola’s R56 Manual

Your moderators are WB6MIE Tony Dinkel and NO7BS Kirk Nemzer


November 24, 2019  Tek Net will be on….

We will continue with a few D Star questions that were sent in earlier and have some general discussions depending how long the D Star talk takes.


November 17, 2019  Tek Net will be on….

  • “D Star In’s & Out’s by NO7E”

Please follow along at Chris’s Website:



November 10, 2019  Tek Net will be on….


Tonight’s attending PRO Team-

To clarify IT issues is Shane Huston KG7QWH

Restoring vintage radios & repairing radio equipment Kirk Nemzer NO7BS

Homebrew building and modifications to radios

& T-Hunting Earl Lizardi WB6AMT

RF & Antenna Designs & Propagation for Ham, Commercial, Broadcast  Tony Dinkel WB6MIE

D Star questions and registration Chris LaRue NO7E

We welcome opinions, questions and information from all of the check-ins every week, including a question from previous discussions.


11/3/2019 Why should I turn my radio on other than for nets

  • (Open forum type discussion)

#1  Why did you get a ham license?

9 stations checked in…9 different reasons to get their license.

#2  What steps did you have to take to get your license?

This was also mentioned by many as they answered question #1.

#3  How many years have you had your license and have  you operated the entire time.

This evenings check-ins total more than 286 years of amateur radio operation.

#4  What do you find enjoyable about your “ON THE AIR” time?

#5   Do you think getting your ham license has made you more receptive to learning new technologies?

Without a doubt, ham radio for some was a gateway to newer technologies and aspects of ham radio.

#6   How would you change the way “NETS” are run?

#7   Do you think having two nets a week, Mid-Daytime & Nighttime would serve more club members?

#8   How many Nets do you regularly participate in?

#9   What type of Net would you like to see formed?

Interest in 10 meter operation was suggested and also possibly a sports oriented net.

Due to time constraints we skipped over a few questions for tonight, however i would still like to hear from folks on any of the questions we didn’t have time for. 


Make use of a worthless radio chassis….



#2   DISASSEMBLY800Maxtrac_1










#10A  MACHINING & ASSEMBLY20191025_135958_Film3


#11A   MODIFICATIONS20191025_130751_Film3







#13A  WIRING IT ALL TOGETHER20191026_211131_Film3

#13A1  Schematic Interface StripEtxrenal Interface

#13A2   Schematic of Radioless NodeAllstar_Radioless_Node_Block



#13C  20191026_211223_Film3

#14A  NEW FACE PLATE20191025_210333_Film3



#14D  Final connectionsDSCN1970




DTMF Remote Antenna Switch Project conclusion


#2Antenna switch


#4Antenna switch Encoder

The optional circuit shown is to indicate that a dtmf tone is being sent to the remote unit.

This is accomplished by using the MUTE output function of the encoder ic.


Tests have been made with 100 feet of RG6 cable TV coax, the unit switched antennas like it was suppose to.  The photo is showing a 25ft RCA to RCA cable video cable for testing purposes.

The MT8870 DTMF Decoders are available online or from me for $4.00 each. The CD 4028 Cmos IC is available to anyone wanting to pick it up from my QTH at no charge.

The DTMF Encoder Ic is manufactured by AMI and is available from several vendors online.

The DTMF Encoder doesn’t have to be an S2559, there many different Touch-tone encoder IC’s out there ( example – TP 5089 $4.95 each), anything that will generate the touch-tones needed will work.


  • Homebrew projects


This weeks project is a remote controlled antenna switch.

This remote switch became a project after talking about DTMF signalling a couple of weeks ago.

One aspect of this switch is that we will power the remote relays and switch those relays using just RG-6 cable TV coax.  DC power as well as the audio DTMF tones will be sent up the center conductor eliminating multiple conductors.

#2 Preparing the RF enclosureDSCN1930




#4 Ready to wire upDSCN1939

#5 Relay Wiring20191006_174446_Film3

#6 DTMF Touch-tone Decoder ReceiverMT8870

#6A DTMF Decoder  Digit #1


#6B  DTMF Decoder  Digit #2


#6C  DTMF Decoder Digit #3


#6D  DTMF Decoder receiving any other digitDSCN1931

#7 DTMF Encoder CircuitEncoder

#7A DTMF Encoder BoardIMG0186A[1]

#8 DC power/ Audio Injector circuit20191006_174646_Film3

Finished project pictures may be available at the beginning of next weeks TekNet as a recap from the previous week’s discussion.




Sept 29, 2019

  • Mounting mobile antennas for better performance

#1 The DB…

When we talk about a db rating, what is really being expressed?

dB is an abbreviation for “decibel“. One decibel is one tenth of a Bel, named for Alexander Graham Bell. The measurement quoted in dB describes the ratio (10 log power difference, 20 log voltage difference, etc.) between the quantity of two levels, the level being measured and a reference.

From a loss standpoint, if a measurement is deemed to be -3db between to levels, then that indicates a measurement of 1/2 or 50% lower signal level.

(You will see this described when looking at antenna feedline losses at a certain frequency limit on lengths of 100 ft or more).

A measurement level of +6db would indicate a signal level approximately 4 times the originating signal level on the reference antenna.

NOTE – It has stated that the energy level losses from an HT inside of a vehicle is at times -11.3db or greater than the same signal level radiating from a center mounted 1/4  wave whip in the center of the vehicle’s roof.

That means that a 5 watt HT will be radiating a signal approximately equal to  .3125 watts out of the vehicle. (Conditions in the car vary)

#2 Some examples…Loss visualization.

#3 Where to put the antenna


#4 Propagation between a 1/4 wave and 5/8 wave gainGain_plot_70cm_vehicle

Notice the plot at approximately 28 degrees.

#5 Beam Width


#6 Feedline losses


#7 Antenna Types






#9 Drilling a hole in my car will reduce the value.

As the manager of a Motorola Mobile Telephone Service shop in San Diego, Ca., I was asked that question very often by customers having mobile telephone antennas installed on their new vehicles.

Over the years I have questioned car dealerships, if a vehicle had a mobile telephone antenna (it was easier for them to understand why there was antenna on the vehicle) installed, would that affect the vehicle’s resale value when it was removed and a proper rubber flat antenna plug used to cover the hole.

My answer from the Mercedes, BMW, Chevrolet and Ford dealerships in San Diego, Ca. at the time all responded with no.

So….is it worth the trouble to install an antenna properly…absolutely.

Will it cost me money down the road….absolutely not (if removed and plugged properly).

Will it make a difference in performance, again… absolutely!

Antenna mounting holes can be as small as 3/8″ to 3/4″, all have plugs available.

CONCLUSION – Put a charge on that cordless drill and get ready to make your mobile radio talk and receive better than it ever has.

Our next  “ASK THE PROS” Tek Net will be on October 13th.

Have your questions ready and plan to be there.


Sept 22, 2019

“What does the Touch-tone buttons on your HT do?”

#1  Frequencies


#1A  Single Tone & Dual Tone

dowsingle tonedymf wave

#2  Examples – Encodersty__90555.1522962981.1280.1280



#3 Encoder ICs2559_5089freqs

#4 TelcoEncoder Schematic


#5 DTMF Decoders – Telco KT-247B247b

#5A DTMF Decoder – Telco  LC  type


#5B Decoder MT8870 type


#6 Decoder Schematic – MT8870 ICimages


Sept 15, 2019

“ASK THE PROS” Session for tonight.

Our distinguished panel of experts for tonight’s free form open forum has many years of practical experience in their respective fields and are still active today.

Subject matter can be about Ham Radio, Electronics, Audio, Video, Space Communications to some Nuclear Physics.

If we don’t have the answer for you it will be researched and the answer will be posted here.

Questions will be entered here along with their answers.

Tonight’s panel participants are….


NO7BS – KIRK NEMZER    ANTIQUE RADIO RESTORATION, HAM RADIO, SATELLITE VIDEO                                             & MORE



Be sure to state who you are directing your question to, so they can respond directly to you.


Sept 8, 2019

Building a disguised UHF base antenna


#2Looped J-pole antenna

#3Bending Chart


#5A    Prepping the piecesEnd cap

#5BT pieces

#6 Anchoring the antennaInside T

#7 Mounting to a vertical supportBottom

#8 Mounting hanging from a tree or overhead supportBottom2.jpg




#11  Dual band ground plane


Sept 1, 2019

General question/ answer discussion and swap meet listing


August 25, 2019

How to use a multimeter

#1  Digital LCD or LED multimeter

Some LCD digital meters have a sensitivity of Megohms per volt, making them very attractive when measuring a high impedence circuit, because it won’t load down the circuit or measurement under test.


#2 Display driver circuit LED


#3  Analog Multimeter 

Quality meter movements sensitivity was 20,000 ohms per volt, which depending on the circuit would change the tuning or measurement by loading the circuit down.

To a circuit it could look like you just connected a 20K resistor in the circuit.

images (1)


The DArsonval movement is a DC moving coil-type movement in which an electromagnetic core is suspended between the poles of a permanent magnet. This was first called a galvanometer before the development of the D Arsenval movement. They were the first instruments used to detect and measure small amounts of electric currents.


Note…that when using an analog meter the Polarity or Positive and Negative leads MUST be hooked up correctly or the meter movement will deflect the needle in the opposite direction and can damage the movement.

#5 What are some of the uses of a typical multimeter?

* DC voltages when checking a battery or power supply output.

* Checking the charging voltage that your car’s alternator produces.

* Checking the AC voltage at an outlet in your home.

* Determining what AC voltages an unmarked transformer is producing.

* Measuring the ohms of a resistor or potentiometer.

* Checking the voice coils of a speaker.

* Checking a fuse or lamp to see if it is open.

* Measuring the current that a circuit is drawing from its power source.

* Measuring the charging current to a battery being charged.

* Use as a continuity checker with an audible tone.









Power Supply output

#8 Measuring vehicle alternator output

Vehicle battery

#9 Measuring Resistance







#10 Measuring current demand

LED current

#11 Measuring current with leads reversed


#12 Continuity testing (low resistance range)

Used to track a short.

Check for good ground.

For checking fuses that are sand filled.

Checking connections or solder joints that look suspicious.

August 18th at 8pm –

  • How does Allstar work




Allstar node located at Pleasants Pk., California WB6MIE repeater 446.120MHz






Hardware improvements from the Pi 3 to Pi 3 B+

The Pi 3 Model B+ is based on the same quad-core, 64-bit processor, as the Pi 3Model B. Like the Model B, the B+’s is based on a Arm Cortex A53 architecture. However, the B+ ups the speed of the CPU to 1.4GHz from 1.2GHz in the original Model B, an increase of 16.7%.Mar 14, 2018


August 11, 2019 

Astron analog power supply








#5 Adjustable regulator board


#6 & #7 Surplus equipment